Latest update: September 24, 2018


ProGT2 (Alpha-toxin)

Home -> ProGTdb -> Search ProGT_Main -> Display data

ProGT ID ProGT2 (Alpha-toxin)
Organism Information
Organism NameClostridium novyi ATCC 19402
Clinical ImplicationPathogenic
DomainBacteria
PhylumFirmicutes
ClassificationFamily: Clostridiaceae
Order: Clostridiales
Class: Clostridia
Phylum: Firmicutes
Taxonomic ID (NCBI)1542
Genome Information
Gene BankNC_008593.1
Gene Information
Gene Nametcnα
NCBI Reference SequenceZ48636
Protein information
Protein NameAlpha-toxin 
UniProtKB/ SwissProt IDQ46149
UniProtKB Sequence>tr|Q46149|Q46149_CLONO Alpha-toxin OS=Clostridium novyi PE=1 SV=1 MLITREQLMKIASIPLKRKEPEYNLILDALENFNRDIEGTSVKEIYSKLSKLNELVDNYQ TKYPSSGRNLALENFRDSLYSELRELIKNSRTSTIASKNLSFIWIGGPISDQSLEYYNMW KMFNKDYNIRLFYDKNSLLVNTLKTAIIQESSKVIIEQNQSNILDGTYGHNKFYSDRMKL IYRYKRELKMLYENMKQNNSVDDIIINFLSNYFKYDIGKLNNQKENNNNKMIAIGATDIN TENILTNKLKSYYYQELIQTNNLAAASDILRIAILKKYGGVYCDLDFLPGVNLSLFNDIS KPNGMDSNYWEAAIFEAIANEKKLMNNYPYKYMEQVPSEIKERILSFVRNHDINDLILPL GDIKISQLEILLSRLKAATGKKTFSNAFIISNNDSLTLNNLISQLENRYEILNSIIQEKF KICETYDSYINSVSELVLETTPKNLSMDGSSFYQQIIGYLSSGFKPEVNSTVFFSGPNIY SSATCDTYHFIKNTFDMLSSQNQEIFEASNNLYFSKTHDEFKSSWLLRSNIAEKEFQKLI KTYIGRTLNYEDGLNFNKWKRVTTSELLKVIEEVNSTKIYENYDLNMILQIQGDDISYES AVNVFGKNPNKSILIQGVDDFANVFYFENGIVQSDNINNILSRFNDIKKIKLTLIGHGEN VFNPKLFGGKTVNDLYTNIIKPKLQHLLEREGVILKNKYLKINILGCYMFTPKVDINSTF VGKLFNKISRDLQPKGFSKNQLEISANKYAIRINREGKREVLDYFGKWVSNTDLIAEQIS NKYVVYWNEVENTLSARVEQLNKVAEFAKDINSIIQTTNNQELKQSLVNTYADLITTLYS ELLKEDIPFELDNIQIKERIILNEISRLHDFSNIILDFYQKNNISNNMIILFDSIIKEKD YYNVKLANKITGETSVIKTYSDSLWNFTNKYKKIVDDIKGIIVKDINGEFIKKADFEIEQ NPSLLNSAMLMQLLIDYKPYTEILTNMNTSLKVQAYAQIFQLSIGAIQEATEIVTIISDA LNANFNILSKLKVGSSVASVIIDGINLIAALTELKNVKTNFERKLIEAKVGMYSIGFILE SSSLISGLLGATAVSEILGVISVPVAGILVGLPSLVNNILVLGEKYNQILDYFSKFYPIV GKNPFSIQDNIIIPYDDIAITELNFKYNKFKYGYAKISGLKVGLVTHIGENIDHYFSAPS LDHYIELSIYPALKLNDTNLPKGNVVLLPSGLNKVYKPEISAIAGANSQEGNGVEVLNLI RNYYVDSNGNTKFPWKYEAPFEYSFSYMRVEYFDTKVNVILDNENKTLIIPVLTIDEMRN KISYEILGDGGQYNVILPVNQTNINIVSNKNDIWNFDVSYIVKESKIEDNKFVLDGFINN IFSTLKVSNDGFKIGKQFISIKNTPRAINLSFKINNNIVIVSIYLNHEKSNSITIISSDL NDIKNNFDNLLDNINYIGLGSISDNTINCIVRNDEVYMEGKIFLNEKKLVFIQNELELHL YDSVNKDSQYLINNPINNVVKYKDGYIVEGTFLINSTENKYSLYIENNKIMLKGLYLESS VFKTIQDKIYSKEKVNDYILSLIKKFFTVNIQLCPFMIVSGVDENNRYLEYMLSTNNKWI INGGYWENDFNNYKIVDFEKCNVIVSGSNKLNSEGDLADTIDVLDKDLENLYIDSVIIIP KVYTKKIIIHPIPNNPQINIINTQSIHDKCHLIIDSVLTNNYHWESDGDDLIITNGLDIN IRILQGLSFGFKYKNIYLKFSNYDELSLNDFLLQNYNVKGLYYINGELHYKNIPGDTFEY GWINIDSRWYFFDSINLIAKKGYQEIEGERYYFNPNTGVQESGVFLTPNGLEYFTNKHAS SKRWGRAINYTGWLTLDGNKYYFQSNSKAVTGLQKISDKYYYFNDNGQMQIKWQIINNNK YYFDGNTGEAIIGWFNNNKERYYFDSEGRLLTGYQVIGDKSYYFSDNINGNWEEGSGVLK SGIFKTPSGFKLFSSEGDKSAINYKGWLDLNGNKYYFNSDSIAVTGSYNIKGIQYYFNPK TAVLTNGWYTLDNNNYYVSNGHNVLGYQDIDGKGYYFDPSTGIQKAGVFPTPNGLRYFTM KPIDGQRWGQCIDYTGWLHLNGNKYYFGYYNSAVTGWRVLGGKRYFFNIKTGAATTGLLT LSGKRYYFNEKGEQLTLV
EMBL CDSCAA88565.1.
Sequence length2178 AA
Subcellular LocationHost cell plasma membrane
Function in Native Organism 1) Alph toxin is a secretory glycosyltransferase which glycosylates the Rho family proteins of host and induces depolymerization of these family of proteins.
Additional Information1) Alpha-toxin mimics post-translational modification of cellular proteins.
2) It is intracellularly acting cytotoxin acts on microfilament system of cell monolayers.
3) C. novyi alpha-toxin is a N-acetyl-glucosaminyltransferase and monoglycosyltransferase activity that modifies the Rho subtype proteins.
4) C. novyi alpha-toxin is the only member of the large clostridial cytotoxin family to accept UDP?N-acetylglucosamine as a nucleotide-sugar substrate, the other toxins exclusively use UDP-glucose.
5) alpha-toxin (toxin fragment alpha-551) has more affinity and higher transferase efficiency with UDP?N-acetyl-glucosamine compared to UDP-glucose.
6) Substitution of residues in alpha-toxin from Ser-385 and Ala-387 to isoleucine and glutamine, respectively, reversed the donor specificity of the toxin from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to UDP-glucose.
PDB ID 2VK9
Glycosyltransferase Information
Glycosylation TypeO- (Thr) linked 
CAZY FamilyGT44
EC Number (BRENDA)2.4.1.B62.1497
Mechanism of Glycan TransferSequential
Donor TypeNucleotide activated sugars
Donor SpecificityUDP-Glc and UDP-GlcNAc
Glycan Information
Glycan transferredMonosaccharides (GlcNAc and Glc) 
Method of Glycan IndentificationLC-ESI-MS
Experimental_strategiesIn vivo and In vitro 
Acceptor Subtrate Information
Acceptor Substrate name RhoA
Acceptor Substrate name Rac1
Acceptor Substrate name Ras
Acceptor Substrate name Cdc42
Acceptor Substrate name RhoG
Litrature
Year Of Validation1995 
Reference Hofmann, F., Herrmann, A., Habermann, E., & von Eichel-Streiber, C. (1995). Sequencing and analysis of the gene encoding the ?-toxin of Clostridium novyi proves its homology to toxins A and B of Clostridium difficile. Molecular and General Genetics MGG, 247(6), 670-679.

Authors Hofmann, F., Herrmann, A., Habermann, E., & von Eichel-Streiber, C.
Research groupsInstitute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene Obere Zahlbacher Str. 63, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, D-55101 Mainz, Germany
Corresponding Author von Eichel-Streiber, C.
ContactsInstitute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene Obere Zahlbacher Str. 63, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, D-55101 Mainz, Germany
Reference Selzer, J., Hofmann, F., Rex, G., Wilm, M., Mann, M., Just, I., & Aktories, K. (1996). Clostridium novyi ?-toxin-catalyzed incorporation of GlcNAc into Rho subfamily proteins. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 271(41), 25173-25177.

Authors Selzer, J., Hofmann, F., Rex, G., Wilm, M., Mann, M., Just, I., & Aktories, K.
Research groups1 Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology of the University of Freiburg, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany. 2 European Molecular Biology Laboratories, D-69012 Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany.
Corresponding Author Aktories, K.
ContactsInstitute of Pharmacology and Toxicology of the University of Freiburg, D-79104 Freiburg. Germany European Molecular Biology Laboratories, D-69012 Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany.
Reference Busch, C., Schömig, K., Hofmann, F., & Aktories, K. (2000). Characterization of the Catalytic Domain ofClostridium novyi Alpha-Toxin. Infection and immunity, 68(11), 6378-6383.

Authors Busch, C., Schömig, K., Hofmann, F., & Aktories, K.
Research groupsInstitute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany
Corresponding Author Aktories, K.
ContactsInstitute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany